Connect with us

Health

Skin cancer deaths higher in men than in women: Study

Published

on

cancer

London, Nov 5 : The global death rates for melanoma — most serious type of skin cancer — has seen a steep rise in men since 1985, with mortality rates among women rising more slowly or even declining, according to researchers, including one of Indian-origin.

It could be because men are less likely to protect themselves from the sun or engage with melanoma awareness and prevention campaigns, the researchers noted.

“The major risk factor for melanoma is overexposure to ultraviolet radiation, either from sun exposure or from using sunbeds,” said Dorothy Yang, junior doctor at the Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust, UK.

“Despite public health efforts to promote awareness of melanoma and encourage sun-smart behaviours, melanoma incidence has been increasing in recent decades,” Yang added.

The results were presented at the NCRI Cancer Conference in Glasgow.

For the study, the team studied death rates in the 33 countries between 1985 and 2015 considering an ageing population and other countries having a younger demographic.

Overall, the highest three-year average death rates for 2013 to 2015 were found in Australia (5.72 per 100,000 men and 2.53 per 100,000 in women) and Slovenia (3.86 in men and 2.58 in women), with the lowest in Japan (0.24 in men and 0.18 in women).

However, the Czech Republic was the only country where the team found a decrease in men’s melanoma death rate, where there was as estimated annual percentage decrease of 0.7 per cent between 1985 and 2015.

In addition, Israel and the Czech Republic experienced the largest decrease in mortality rates in women, — 23.4 per cent and 15.5 per cent respectively.

“This research shows that death rates for melanoma are stabilising or decreasing in some countries, particularly for women, but in almost all countries there was an increase in death rates over the past 30 years in men,” said Poulam Patel, Professor at the University of Nottingham in the UK.

However, more research is needed to understand the reason for this trend, but in the meantime, more public health efforts targeted at men may be needed to raise awareness of the disease and of sun-smart behaviours, the team noted.

Health

Slow reading speed linked to dry eyes: Study

Published

on

Slow reading study
Representative Image

New York, Nov 17: People suffering from chronic dry eye disease are likely to have a slow reading rate, according to researchers.

The chronic dry eye is a common disease in which natural tears fail to adequately lubricate the eyes, thus drastically affecting its functioning.

The study found that the condition can slow a person’s reading speed by as much as 10 per cent and can make it difficult to read for more than an average of 30 minutes.

Those with clinically significant dry eye could read fewer words per minute — 32 words per minute less — than those without the condition, who read at the same rate of 272 words per minute.

“We suspected that people with dry eye were mostly unable to sustain good reading performance because their tears cannot re-lubricate their eye surfaces fast enough,” said Esen Akpek, from the Johns Hopkins Wilmer Eye Institute in the US.

For the study, published in the journal Optometry and Vision Science, the team included 186 adults aged 50 or older.

The participants had not used prescription or over the counter eyedrops in the 24 hours before testing.

Importantly, all participants responded to eye discomfort vision quality and environmental contributors to eye complaints, such as wind or smoke.

People who experience frequent dry eye symptoms such as stinging, fluctuating vision and dryness can try over the counter eyedrops, but will do best if they undergo professional testing and diagnosis, said Akpek.

IANS

Continue Reading

Health

Obese teenagers can face pancreatic cancer risk

Published

on

Pancreatic cancer

New York, Nov 12: If your teenager or young adult child is obese, he or she can be at four-times the risk of developing pancreatic cancer later in life, new research warns.

Researchers from the Tel Aviv University analysed 1,087,358 Jewish men and 707,212 women between 16 to 19 years for the study published in the journal CANCER.

It showed that overweight and even higher weight within the “normal” weight range in men may increase pancreatic cancer risk in a graded manner.

Compared with normal weight, obesity was associated with a 3.67-times higher cancer risk among men and a 4.07-times higher risk among women, the report said.

In addition, high-normal BMI and overweight men were associated with 49 per cent and 97 per cent higher risks for cancer, respectively, as compared to those with low-normal BMI.

Pancreatic cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world and adult obesity has been linked with an increased risk for its occurrence.

It has an extremely low survival rate which has barely improved over the last 40 years.

The combination of complex chemical, biological, bio-mechanical and structural factors found in pancreatic cancer tissues makes it difficult to treat.

Systemic inflammation caused by obesity is a potential driver behind the development of pancreatic cancer. Thus, managing weight could help reduce the risk, the researchers noted.

IANS

Continue Reading

Health

Salmonella resistant to different antibiotics: Study

Published

on

New York, Nov 11 : Salmonella, a common bacteria that causes foodborne diseases, are resistant to several antibiotics used to treat infections, suggests new research.

For the study, the researchers sequenced and investigated the genomes of 90 strains of a specific serological variant (serovar) of Salmonella enterica known as S. Typhimurium.

When the action of antibiotics in each of the 90 strains was tested, it was discovered that the vast majority were resistant to different classes of antibiotics that are part of the arsenal of medicine.

The study, published in the journal PLOS ONE, also identified 39 genes responsible for resistance to antibiotics.

“It is striking that S. Typhimurium is resistant to antibiotics that can be used to treat the disease. These drugs are available to physicians for use in combating infections that display resistance,” said Amanda Aparecida Seribelli from the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil.

Salmonella comprises two species, S. bongori and S. enterica. The latter is the type species, with a large number of subspecies and serovars that cause more foodborne infections than any other species in Brazil and worldwide.

The human and animal intestinal tract is the main natural reservoir for this pathogen, with poultry, pork and related food products serving as major transmission vectors.

The six subspecies of S. enterica are subdivided into 2,600 serovars.

The most important subspecies of S. enterica from the epidemiological standpoint is S. enterica subspecies enterica, which causes the foodborne infection known as salmonellosis. The symptoms are diarrhoea, fever, stomach cramps and vomiting.

The most frequently isolated serovars of this subspecies are S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis.

All the 90 strains analysed in the study belonged to S. Typhimurium.

Whole-genome sequencing of the main bacteria that cause acute diarrohea was the focus of the research.

According to the study, 65 of the strains proved resistant to sulfonamides, 44 to streptomycin, 27 to tetracycline, 21 to gentamicin and seven to ceftriaxone, a cephalosporin antibiotic.(IANS)

Continue Reading
Advertisement

Most Popular