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Saturn rings may vanish in 100 million years: NASA

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Washington, Dec 18: Saturn is losing its iconic rings at the maximum rate estimated from Voyager 1 and 2 observations made decades ago, confirms new NASA research that estimates that the rings have less than 100 million years to live.

Saturn’s rings are mostly chunks of water ice ranging in size from microscopic dust grains to boulders several yards (metres) across.

The rings are being pulled into Saturn by gravity as a dusty rain of ice particles under the influence of Saturn’s magnetic field.

“We estimate that this ‘ring rain’ drains an amount of water products that could fill an Olympic-sized swimming pool from Saturn’s rings in half an hour,” said lead author of the study James O’Donoghue of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

“From this alone, the entire ring system will be gone in 300 million years, but add to this the Cassini-spacecraft measured ring-material detected falling into Saturn’s equator, and the rings have less than 100 million years to live. This is relatively short, compared to Saturn’s age of over four billion years,” O’Donoghue said.

Scientists have long wondered if Saturn was formed with the rings or if the planet acquired them later in life.

The new research favours the latter scenario, indicating that they are unlikely to be older than 100 million years.

“We are lucky to be around to see Saturn’s ring system, which appears to be in the middle of its lifetime. However, if rings are temporary, perhaps we just missed out on seeing giant ring systems of Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune, which have only thin ringlets today,” O’Donoghue added.

Various theories have been proposed for the ring’s origin. If the planet got them later in life, the rings could have formed when small, icy moons in orbit around Saturn collided, perhaps because their orbits were perturbed by a gravitational tug from a passing asteroid or comet.

The first hints that ring rain existed came from Voyager observations of seemingly unrelated phenomena: peculiar variations in Saturn’s electrically charged upper atmosphere (ionosphere), density variations in Saturn’s rings, and a trio of narrow dark bands encircling the planet at northern mid-latitudes.

These dark bands appeared in images of Saturn’s hazy upper atmosphere (stratosphere) made by NASA’s Voyager 2 mission in 1981.

The new study revealed glowing bands in Saturn’s northern and southern hemispheres where the magnetic field lines that intersect the ring plane enter the planet.

They analysed the light to determine the amount of rain from the ring and its effects on Saturn’s ionosphere.

They found that the amount of rain matches remarkably well with the astonishingly high values derived more than three decades earlier.

IANS

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Global coronavirus infections top 13 million

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RUSSIA CORONAVIRUS

Worldwide coronavirus infections passed 13 million on Monday, according to a Reuters tally, marking another milestone in the spread of the disease which has killed more than half a million people in seven months.

The first case was reported in China in early January and it took three months to reach one million cases. It has taken just five days to climb to 13 million cases from 12 million recorded on July 8.

The number of cases is around triple that of severe influenza illnesses recorded annually, according to the World Health Organization.

There have been more than 568,500 deaths linked to the coronavirus so far, within the same range as the number of yearly influenza deaths reported worldwide. The first death was reported on Jan. 10 in Wuhan, China, before infections and fatalities surged in Europe and then later in the United States.

Many hard-hit countries are easing lockdowns put in place to slow the spread of COVID-19. Other places, such as the Australian city of Melbourne, are implementing a second round of shutdowns.

The Reuters tally, which is based on government reports, shows the disease is accelerating the fastest in Latin America. The Americas account for more than half the world’s infections and half the deaths.

The United States reported a daily global record of 69,070 new infections on July 10. In Brazil, 1.86 million people have tested positive, including President Jair Bolsonaro, and more than 72,000 people have died.

India, the country with the third-highest number of infections, has been contending with an average of 26,000 new infections each day since the beginning of July.

In countries with limited testing capacity, case numbers reflect only a proportion of total infections. Experts say official data likely under-represents both infections and deaths.

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India created fake Ayodhya, Ram was from Nepal: Nepali PM Oli

Nepal PM KP Sharma Oli, on Monday, said that ‘real Ayodhya’ is in Nepal and ‘Lord Ram is Nepali not Indian’.

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KP Oli Napali PM

Kathmandu, July 13 : Nepal Prime Minister K.P. Sharma Oli has claimed that India has created a ‘fake’ Ayodhya, and Lord Ram was originally from Nepal — a shocking statement that has come at a time when India’s diplomatic ties with the Himalayan nation is going through certain upheavals.

“We have been oppressed a bit culturally. Facts have encroached. We still believe that we gave Sita to Indian Prince Ram. But we gave to the prince from Ayodhya, not India. Ayodhya is a village a little west to Birgunj, not the Ayodhya created now (sic),” Oli said at an event at his official residence in Baluwatar.

Oli was addressing a program to mark the birth anniversary of Bhanubhakta Acharya.

The stunning claim comes on the backdrop of an ongoing diplomatic tussle between Kathmandu and New Delhi over the newly published Nepal map which claims Indian territory as its own.

Bilateral ties between India-Nepal were stressed after Defence Minister Rajnath Singh inaugurated an 80-km-long road connecting Lipulekh pass with Dharchula in Uttarakhand on May 8. Kathmandu reacted sharply to the development and claimed that the road was built on Nepalese land.

Nepal also updated its political map which included Indian territories. India condemned the move and handed over a diplomatic note to Nepal over the map issue.

The ties worsened further when Oli blamed India for demands by his party colleagues who sought his resignation over multiple ‘failures’. During a rally, Oli alleged that the leaders of his Nepal Communist Party (NCP) who were making attempts to ‘topple his government’, were doing so at the behest of India.

His remarks have invited severe criticism from senior leadership in that country. Former prime minister ‘Prachanda’, who was among leaders who demanded Oli’s resignation, said that Oli’s anti-India remarks were “neither politically correct nor diplomatically appropriate.”

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Pakistanis sing ‘Vande Mataram’ alongside Indians in London protest against China

The growing outrage against China is quite visible on the streets of London too. In fact, Saturday night saw an image reading ‘Free Tibet, Free Hong Kong, Free Uyghurs’ projected onto the Chinese Embassy building in central London.

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Free Tibet

New Delhi, Jul7 July 13 : Pakistanis singing Indian national song is rare. But Sunday saw quite a few of them joining hundreds of Indians, literally hand in hand, in a protest organised outside the Chinese Embassy in London.

Arif Aajakia, a Pakistani human rights activist who believes in speaking “bitter and naked truth” about his country, shouted “boycott China” and “down with China” along with the members of several Indian diaspora groups protesting against China’s expansionist policies.

“Today was also the first time in my life that I sang Vande Mataram,” said Aajakia.

Joining him also was Amjad Ayub Mirza, who hails from Mirpur in Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK), a few others from Karachi and many from Iran, all pretty upset with China meddling in their affairs too.

“I have travelled all the way from Glasgow for this protest. I am from PoK, an Indian living under Pakistani occupation. The Chinese are wreaking havoc across Gilgit-Baltistan through CPEC (China-Pakistan Economic Corridor) and the Pakistani government continues to work hand in glove with them,” said Mirza, who has been quite vocal against oppression and injustice meted out to the people of PoK by Pakistani authorities.

The Indians, who’ve organised similar protests against China in the US, Canada and other parts of the world, carried posters and placards against Chinese President Xi Jinping, asking him to control his over-ambitious power play.

The growing outrage against China is quite visible on the streets of London too. In fact, Saturday night saw an image reading ‘Free Tibet, Free Hong Kong, Free Uyghurs’ projected onto the Chinese Embassy building in central London.

With the US sanctioning the Chinese government and its officials for their connection to serious human rights abuse against ethnic Uyghur Muslim minorities in Xinjiang, the world condemning China’s ‘brutal, sweeping crackdown’ against Hong Kong’s people, Indians boycotting Chinese products after People’s Liberation Army intruded the Indian territory and killed Indian soldiers in Ladakh’s Galwan Valley and countries from Japan till Australia up against the dragon, the noose is gradually tightening around the authoritarian regime.

(This content is being carried under an arrangement with indianarrative.com)

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