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Night shifts may raise risk of diabetes

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Lifestyle, Night shifts, diabetes, Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, blood sugar, glucose

New York, Feb 13: Do you frequently work in night shifts? Beware, you are more likely to develop Type 2 diabetes, a precursor to cardiovascular diseases, researchers have warned.

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the way the body processes blood sugar (glucose).

The study found that people working irregular or rotating shifts with usual night shifts were 44 per cent more likely to have Type 2 diabetes.

In addition, compared to day workers, all shift workers were more likely to have Type 2 diabetes, except for permanent night shift workers, the researchers mentioned.

“We see a dose-response relationship between frequency of night shift work and Type 2 diabetes, where the more often people do shift work, the greater their likelihood of having the disease, regardless of genetic predisposition,” said Ceiine Vetter, Professor at the University of Colorado-Boulder.

“This helps us understand one piece of the puzzle: frequency of night shift work seems to be an important factor,” Vetter added.

For the study, published in the journal Diabetes Care, the team examined data from more than 270,000 people, including 70,000 who provided in-depth lifetime employment information and a sub-group of more than 44,000 for whom genetic data were available.

More than 6,000 people in the sample population had Type 2 diabetes.

Using information on more than 100 genetic variants that are associated with Type 2 diabetes, the research team developed a genetic risk score that they used to assign a value to each participant.

The results showed that those with the highest genetic risk scores were almost four times as likely to develop Type 2 diabetes compared to individuals who had lower genetic risk scores.

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO) the global prevalence of diabetes has nearly doubled since 1980, rising from 4.7 per cent to 8.5 per cent in the adult population. The majority of people with diabetes are affected by Type 2 diabetes.

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How mushrooms can aid in diabetes treatment

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New York, Aug 17: Eating white button mushrooms daily can act as a prebiotic by improving microbial community in the gut, which could then improve the regulation of glucose in the liver, a finding that could one day pave way for new diabetes treatments, say researchers.

In the study, feeding white button mushrooms to mice changed the composition of gut microbes — microbiota — to produce more short chain fatty acids, specifically propionate from succinate, according to Margherita T. Cantorna, Professor at Pennsylvania State University in the US.

Previous research has shown that succinate and propionate can change the expression of genes needed to manage glucose production, she said.

“Managing glucose better has implications for diabetes, as well as other metabolic diseases,” Cantorna noted.

The study, reported in the Journal of Functional Foods, used two types of mice who were fed about a daily serving size of the mushrooms. One group had microbiota, the other were germ-free.

Consuming the mushrooms set off a chain reaction among the gut bacteria, expanding the population of Prevotella — a bacteria that produces propionate and succinate.

These acids can change the expression of genes that are key to the pathway between the brain and the gut that helps manage the production of glucose, or gluconeogenesis.

The mushrooms, in this case, serve as a prebiotic, which is a substance that feeds beneficial bacteria that are already existing in the gut. Probiotics are live beneficial bacteria that are introduced into the digestive system.

Beyond the possible beneficial benefits of mushrooms as a prebiotic, Cantorna said that this study also shows more evidence that there is a tight connection between diet and microbiota.

“It’s pretty clear that almost any change you make to the diet, changes the microbiota,” Cantorna added.

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Cabbage, broccoli could help prevent colon cancer: Study

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London, Aug 16: Eating green leafy vegetables such as kale, cabbage as well as broccoli could help maintain a healthy gut and prevent colon cancer, says a new study.

The findings revealed that mice fed on a diet rich in indole-3-carbinol (I3C) — which is produced when we digest these vegetables — were protected from gut inflammation and colon cancer as it activates a protein called the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR).

AhR acts as an environmental sensor, passing signals to immune cells and epithelial cells in the gut lining to protect us from inflammatory responses to the trillions of bacteria that live in the gut.

In the study, published in the journal Immunity, when genetically modified mice — that cannot produce or activate AhR in their guts — were fed a diet enriched with I3C, they did not develop inflammation or cancer.

But “when mice whose cancer was already developing were switched to the I3C-enriched diet, they ended up with significantly fewer tumours which were also more benign,” said lead author Amina Metidji from the Francis Crick Institute in the UK.

Moreover, the team found that normal mice fed on standard or I3C-enriched food did not develop tumours, while those fed on a ‘purified control diet’ developed colon tumours within 10 weeks.

Purified control diets contain exact mixtures of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and fibres enriched with vitamins and minerals, but have fewer AhR-promoting chemicals.

“This suggests that even without genetic risk factors, a diet devoid of vegetable matter can lead to colon cancer,” the researchers noted.

The study shows that while we cannot “change the genetic factors that increase our risk of cancer, we can probably mitigate these risks by adopting an appropriate diet with plenty of vegetables”.

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Exercise may reduce irregular heartbeat risk in obese people

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Atrial fibrillation is a condition that can make your heart race and put you at risk for stroke. But people who are obese are more prone to it and can reduce it if they exercise regularly.

According to a study, people with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 30 have a significantly higher risk of developing atrial fibrillation than the normal weight individuals.

“People who reported that they didn’t exercise at all had about double the risk of developing fibrillation when compared to those who were physically active and whose body weight was normal,” said co-author Lars Elnan Garnvik from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology’s (NTNU).

“However, people who were obese but who exercised a lot limited the increase in risk to no more than approximately 50 per cent. This suggests that physical activity is good for limiting the increased risk of atrial fibrillation in obese people,” Garnvik added.

For the study, published in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, the research team involved 43,602 men and women who participated in the study between 2006 and 2008.

“Physical activity and exercise reduce a lot of the known risk factors for atrial fibrillation, like high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high cholesterol and chronic inflammation,” said co-author Lars Elnan Garnvik from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU).

“Physical activity can also improve a person’s fitness level, and we know that people in good shape have a reduced risk of heart failure,” Garnvik added.

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